Montag, 27. Juni 2005

Tallinn Lasnamäe

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Typification Of Housing As A Social Tool Culminates In Soviet Mega-Structures

Tõnu Laigu, architect, Tallinn 2005

Lasnamäe

The territory of Lasnamäe is 30 km2 of which the region of panel residential buildings constitutes about one half. The authors of the plan of Lasnamäe, including M. Port, M. Meelak, I. Raud, 0, Zemtsugov, H, Sepp and V. Herkel, foresaw an urban region with a population of 200,000 people, A comprehensive plan for the region was completed in 1976. The plan of Lasnamäe is based proposed two parallel highways that linearly join eleven smaller city districts, each with 12 to 18 thousand inhabitants. These were the so-called "micro-districts". [FOOTNOTE: The vision of Lasnamäe corresponds almost one to one to the Antonio Sant'Elia's La Citta' Nuova.] Each micro-district was to have a center where a school, a kindergarten and a commercial and cultural centre would be located. Micro-districts were to be bisected by a highway; the plan was for pedestrians and cars to have access to both sides of the highway via bridges. The highway has in actuality been sunk in flagstone rock, keeping cars and pedestrians on different levels.

The construction of Lasnamäe panel houses started at the end of the 1970s as planned, beginning with micro-district I. As an enormous new construction site, Lasnamäe became a storage site for the products of the Tallinn housing plant, and the conveyor was put to work at full capacity. The buildings that started to go up were of the same type as those in Väike-Õismäe, although the apartments were a bit more spacious. But the project was destined to remain unfinished - mass construction came to an abrupt halt when Estonia regained its independence. This was a blow to the socialist economy as well as to national housing projects. A total of only 650 apartment houses were erected in Lasnamäe. In micro-district X, underground infrastructure was installed and construction sites were prepared but then the project came to a full stop. The social infrastructure and some of the planned streets remained unfinished. Today Lasnamäe is an unfinished residential district without a fully developed service network or possibilities for leisure. Forgotten city space lies between standardized houses in this place where people live only temporarily and leave as soon as possible.

Today more than 112,000 people live in Lasnamäe of whom about 60-70% are non-Estonians. Paradoxically, despite shortcomings in social life, there are no empty and abandoned houses or apartments in Lasnamäe. All residential space is liquid and can be sold or leased for a relatively favorable price. Perhaps this indicates that today there is not enough residential space in Tallinn. Because it is in use, there is no apparent need to demolish Lasnamäe...

...One city is one whole and a huge part of it is neglected for a while. Luck of developer's economic interest from one side and liberal economic politics of state from other side leaves whole industrially built housing districts without any economic support and resources. Now rises up an activity of so-called third sector from the bottom. The new owners, who have formed administrative units of local inhabitants recently, like apartment associations, starting to renovate their buildings and neighborhoods with own forces. Usually the first step is to renovate a technical infrastructure of the building and of course to cover with different materials your own balcony - the balcony like a family mark. More wealthy associations improve the skin and roof of the house. There are some renovation projects, where the flat roof of the typified building changing into gable roof, with additional heat insulation making walls warmer, with new windows and with new finishing materials giving a fresh facade of the building. But this kind of little scale renewal of houses cannot change the quality of the whole area.

Shanghai Harbour City (Lingang City)

New Town geplant von Gerkan, Mark und Partner - link

erinnert in der form an die sowjetische New Town Väike-Õismäe in Tallinn von 1968 für 40.000 Einwohner, die ebenfalls radial um einen zentralen see angeordnet ist. allerdings sind die dimensionen in Shanghai wesentlich größer:

- konstruktionszeit 2002-2020
- für 450.000 Einwohner
- auf 74 qkm
- 30 qm wohnfläche pro einwohner
- künstlich angelegte landschaft, see und flüsse
- "urbanes zentrum" mit luxuswohnungen, büros, geschäften und als ausflugsziel mit touristischem wert
- drumherum weitere Büros, öffentliche Einrichtungen und Wohnhäuser, wobei der Standard wohl nach aussen hin abnimmt

überwindung der postmoderne

freizeitklassenkampf für konsumismus? .................................... dieser diplomblog führt zu einem architekturdiplom und darüber hinaus. untersuchungsgebiet: Lasnamäe, Tallinn, Estland


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